Published: March 16, 2022Updated: August 15, 2022

Guide to Car Insurance in Alabama

The minimum coverage required in sweet home Alabama

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Whether you’re driving through Alabama’s rolling hills or the busy streets of Huntsville, car insurance in the form of liability coverage is a requirement for all drivers. The good news is that Alabama’s car insurance costs are 15 percent lower than the national average, so you won’t have to spend a ton on bodily injury and property damage coverage.

So if you’re one of the 4 million licensed drivers in the state, strap in to learn more about car insurance and driving in sweet home Alabama.

What’s the Minimum Required?

Alabama requires only liability coverage, which breaks down into bodily injury and property damage coverage. Here are the minimum liability limits required:

  • Bodily injury per person: $25,000
  • Bodily injury per accident: $50,000
  • Property damage: $25,0001

Is Minimum Coverage Enough?

Liability coverage only covers the injuries and damages of the other party in accidents you cause, which means that Alabama’s minimum coverage isn’t enough. Unlike full coverage, it does not cover any of your injuries or damages in accidents you cause or incidents like hail; that would require medical payments coverage, collision coverage, and comprehensive coverage2.

We recommend full coverage vs. liability, with limits as high as you can afford. Learn more about how much car insurance you need.

What Is the Average Cost of Car Insurance in Alabama?

Because Alabama’s car insurance requirements are so minimal, car insurance in Alabama costs 15 percent less than the national average as of 2019. Alabama drivers spent an average rate of $932.14 annually on car insurance, which breaks down into $527.20 for liability insurance, $390.19 for collision insurance, and $180.11 for comprehensive coverage.

That being said, you could pay more or less than the average cost of insurance; we’ve seen rates range from $322 all the way up to $7,768.48 for teen drivers.

Alabama Car Insurance Companies

When you’re shopping for car insurance in Alabama, you can choose from the following providers:

  • Allstate
  • Auto-Owners
  • California Casualty
  • Cincinnati
  • Country
  • GEICO
  • Liberty Mutual
  • MetLife (now Farmers)
  • Nationwide
  • Progressive
  • Safeway
  • State Farm
  • Travelers
  • USAA

Saving Money

Even though Alabama already has affordable car insurance, there are a few ways to lower your costs even more.

  1. Increase your deductible. If you raise your deductible, your auto insurance premiums will drop. But make sure that you could actually afford your deductible if you had a collision or comprehensive claim tomorrow.
  2. Ask your agent about discounts. Different car insurance companies offer different discounts. For example, some companies will give you a discount if you have multiple vehicles on your policy. Ask your insurance agent for the discounts that apply to you.
  3. Lower your limits. Lowering your limits will also decrease your premiums, but keep in mind that you’ll get less coverage under a covered claim. In other words, saving money now could mean paying more in the future.
  4. Drop coverages. Cars that don’t run don’t need collision coverage, for example, and older cars don’t need comprehensive coverage. You could also drop unnecessary coverage like rental car coverage or roadside assistance.
  5. Bundle. Do you have another home, life, or business policy? Bundle your car insurance with any other insurance policies under the same provider to unlock savings.

Proof of Insurance

If you have car insurance but no proof of it, can you still get in trouble for driving without insurance? The answer is yes; you must have proof of insurance when you drive in Alabama, be it digital or physical. If you are caught driving without insurance, you could face financial and legal consequences.

Penalties for driving without insurance First offense Subsequent offenses
Maximum fine $500 $1,000
Maximum length of imprisonment (in months) 3 6
Registration suspension Yes, but no time period specified Yes, for 4 months
License suspension None 6 months
Registration reinstatement fee $200 $400
SR-22 requirement following registration reinstatement (in years) 1 3

Alabama Car Insurance and Driving Laws

Once you’ve purchased minimum coverage or more, it’s time to learn about the ins and outs of driving in Alabama.

At-Fault State

Alabama is an at-fault state, which means that the at-fault driver is responsible for the other driver’s bodily injuries and property damage losses. That’s why the state requires liability coverage.

The victim can sue the perpetrator, but they won’t receive compensation if they acted negligently in any way, according to Alabama’s contributory negligence laws. So even if an accident was 96 percent not your fault, that 4 percent of negligence will prevent you from recovering any money in a civil suit.

Uninsured Motorists

Uninsured motorist coverage isn’t a requirement in Alabama, and insurance companies don’t have to offer it. We recommend it, though, as 1 in 5 Alabama drivers are uninsured, according to the Insurance Research Council. This is 36 percent higher than the national average.3

If you have multiple cars with uninsured motorist coverage, you can stack your coverage, meaning you multiply your limits with your number of cars. You’ll appreciate it the next time you’re involved in a hit-and-run!

Driving Under the Influence

A DUI will stay on your record for five years in Alabama. For the first offense, the state will suspend your license for 90 days, but you can apply for a hardship license if you need to drive to or from work.

The penalties are worse if your blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is 0.15 percent or above, and the state could require DUI interlocks.

Offense number First offense Second offense Third offense Fourth and subsequent offenses
How long you’ll need to have an interlock in your car after DUI conviction 6 months if your BAC was under 0.15%; 1 year if it was over 0.15% 1 year 3 years 5 years4

NOTE

In Alabama, interlocks are only mandatory if you have a BAC of at least 0.15 percent or a repeat conviction, but they’re highly incentivized for first convictions as well.

Seat Belt Laws

Everyone 15 years old and above needs to buckle up in Alabama, no matter what seat they’re in. However, this law is under primary enforcement only for those in the front seat. In the back seat, the law is under secondary enforcement, so police can’t stop you for having unbuckled passengers in the back seat if you are committing no other traffic violations.

Distracted Driving Laws

The state of Alabama bans only 16- and 17-year-old drivers from using handheld devices while driving, and only in the first six months of their intermediate licenses. However, no driver can text and drive in Alabama, and the penalties are as follows.

  • First offense: $25 fine, two points on driving record
  • Second offense: $50 fine, two points on driving record
  • Third and subsequent offenses: $75 fine, two points on driving record5

Teen Driving Laws

Those with a graduated driver’s license (learner’s permit, restricted license, or unrestricted license) cannot:

  • Drive with more than one non-family member in the car other than a parent, guardian, or supervising licensed driver at least 21 years old.
  • Drive between midnight and 6 a.m. unless accompanied by a parent, guardian, or licensed driver 21 or older (with parental consent); driving to or from a regular place of work or a school- or church-sponsored event; or driving due to a medical, fire, or law enforcement emergency, or a hunting or fishing activity.
  • Drive while using any handheld communication devices, unless it’s essential.6

How Long You Have to File Claims

You have two years to file both property damage and personal injury claims. If you wait more than two years after the incident, the statute of limitations will have run out and you won’t get coverage.

Cancellation and Non-Renewal Notification Laws

In Alabama, insurance companies must notify you 20 days before they cancel your policy, or 10 days if it’s due to nonpayment. If an auto insurance company chooses to not renew your policy at the end of its term, it has 120 days to notify you before the expiration date so you have enough time to switch insurance companies and avoid a lapse in coverage.

DID YOU KNOW?

A 30- to 60-day lapse in insurance will classify you as a high-risk driver and increase your car insurance rates7. This applies equally whether you have a clean driving record or a bad driving history (such as a speeding ticket or DUI).

Can I Self-Insure?

Technically, if you have more than 25 vehicles, you can self-insure by depositing collateral. However, the director of the Alabama Department of Public Safety will determine the amount of collateral needed for approval.8

Inspection Requirements

When you register a vehicle for the first time, you’ll need to get a license plate-issuing official to inspect it (except for vehicles from manufacturers or dealers with model years 1975 and after). The issuer will fill out a form (https://revenue.alabama.gov/wp-content/uploads/2020/08/MVT-5-9-8-20.qxp_-1.pdf) and send it to the DMV.

The state only requires safety testing, not emissions testing. Your city could require emissions testing, however, so check local ordinances.

SR-22s

If you’ve been found guilty of providing false proof of insurance and had a registration suspension, you’ll need to carry an SR-22, a form that proves you have the minimum coverage, for three years following your registration reinstatement.

Defensive Driving Courses

One way to save money on car insurance is to take a defensive driving course. You can find a course on your city’s website. Unfortunately, the state doesn’t provide a list of courses, the length of the courses, or their costs.

Thresholds for Civil Suits

In Alabama, there’s no monetary or serious injury threshold for a civil suit following a car accident. In other words, no matter how much money you lost or how serious your injuries were, you can sue the perpetrator in a civil case.

When You Must Report an Accident

If you get into a car accident that results in any injury, property damage, or death worth over $500 caused by an uninsured motorist, you have 30 days after the accident to alert law enforcement. If you miss this deadline, you might get one of two convictions.

  • Class A misdemeanor: For accidents that result in property damages, you could be fined up to $1,000.
  • Class C felony: With accidents that result in death or injury, the fine rises to anywhere from $2,500 to $6,000.

Credit Scores and Gender Pricing Discrimination

Some states prevent car insurance companies from using credit scores and sex to determine rates, but Alabama is not one of those states. While people with good credit and women benefit from this with lower rates, people with poor credit and men do not fare as well.

Total Loss Threshold

Alabama’s total loss threshold is 75 percent, meaning that if a car’s repairs cost 75 percent or more than its actual cash value (ACV), it will be declared a total loss. Instead of making the repairs, your insurer will reimburse you for the car’s ACV, as long as it covered your claim.

Contact Information

Here is everything you need to know about registering a car or requesting a duplicate title in Alabama.

Registering a Car in Alabama

Follow these steps to register a new vehicle in Alabama:

  1. Meet the deadline. You’ll need to register your car no more than 20 days after you purchase it.
    Collect the required information. You’ll need your car title, vehicle identification number (VIN), and insurance card.
  2. Gather the fee. Find out what fee you’ll need to pay below.
Primary tag type Secondary tag type Description Annual license fee Additional annual fee
AX N/A Alabama Audubon – Passenger $23-$890 $50
AX 02 Alabama Audubon – Personalized $23-$890 $50
AX MC Alabama Audubon – Motorcycle $15 $50
AX M2 Alabama Audubon – Motorcycle Personalized $15 $50
  1. Visit a license plate-issuing office. Go to your county’s license plate-issuing office and register your car in person.
County Phone number Address URL
Autauga 334-361-3725 176 W. 5th St.

Prattville, AL 36067

http://www.autaugaco.org/Default.asp?ID=31&pg=Home
Baldwin 251-937-0260 220 Courthouse Square

Bay Minette, AL 36507

https://baldwincountyal.gov/Government/probate
Barbour County – City of Clayton 334-775-8371 Courthouse Square, Room 201

Clayton, AL 36016

https://www.altags.com/Barbour_License/Default.aspx
Barbour County – City of Eufaula 334-687-1530 303 E. Broad St., Room 101

Eufaula, AL 36027

https://www.altags.com/Barbour_License/Default.aspx
Bibb 205-926-3104 8 Court Square W., Suite A

Centreville, AL 35042

https://bibbal.com/the-probate-office/
Blount 205-625-4114 220 2nd Ave. E., Room 104

Oneonta, AL 35121

http://www.blountrevenue.com/
Bullock 334-738-2250 217 N. Prairie St.

Union Springs, AL 36089

http://www.bullockal.com/
Butler 334-382-3512 700 Court Square

Greenville, AL 36037

https://www.calhouncountyal.org/
Calhoun 256-241-2900 1702 Noble St., Suite 107

Anniston, AL 36201

https://www.calhouncountyal.org/
Chambers 334-864-4380 2 Lafayette St.

Lafayette, AL 36862

https://www.chamberscountyal.gov/departments/probate-office/tags-titles
Cherokee 256-927-3363 260 Cedar Bluff Road, Suite 10

Centre, AL 35960

http://www.cherokeecounty-al.gov/index.php/probate
Chilton 205-755-1258 407 2nd Ave. N.

Clanton, AL 35045

http://www.chiltoncountyrevenue.com/
Choctaw (Butler) 205-459-2412 117 S. Mulberry, Suite 13

Butler, AL 36904

https://www.calhouncountyal.org/
Clarke 251-275-4141 117 N. Court St.

Grove Hill, AL 36451

https://clarkecountyal.com/license-commissioner/
Clay 256-354-2198 Courthouse Square, 1st Floor

Ashland, AL 36251

https://claycountyprobate.com/
Cleburne 256-463-5655 120 Vickery St., Room 101

Heflin, AL 36264

https://www.cleburnecounty.us/probate-judge
Coffee – Elba 334-897-2211 230-P N. Court Ave.

Elba, AL 36323

https://www.coffeecoprobate-al.org/
Colbert 256-386-8542 201 N. Main St.

Tuscumbia, AL 35764

http://www.colbertprobatejudge.org/
Conecuh 251-578-7023 111 Court Square, Room 101

Evergreen, AL 36401

https://www.conecuhcounty.us/
Coosa 256-377-4919 100 Main St.

Rockford, AL 35136

http://coosacountyalabama.com/
Covington 334-428-2510 1 N. Courthouse Square

Andalusia, AL 36420

https://www.covingtonprobateoffice.com/
Crenshaw 334-335-6568 29 S. Glenwood Ave., Courthouse

Luverne, AL 36049

https://www.crenshawcountyalonline.com/#/
Cullman 256-775-4902 500 2nd Ave. SW, Room 103

Cullman, AL 35055

https://cullmanrevenue.us/TagRenewal/Home/Requirements
Dale 334-774-8427 Dale County Courthouse

100 Court Square

Ozark, AL 36360

https://www.dalecountyrevenue.com/
Dallas 334-874-2518 105 Lauderdale St.

Selma, AL 36071

http://www.dallascountyproperty-tags.com/
DeKalb 256-845-8515 206 Grand Ave. SW

Fort Payne, AL 35967-1918

http://www.revenue-dekalbco-al.us/
Elmore 334-567-1140 100 E. Commerce St.

Wetumpka, AL 36092

https://www.elmoreco.org/
Escambia 251-368-8086 8600 Highway 31, Box 10

Atmore, AL 36502

http://www.co.escambia.al.us/
Etowah 256-549-5325 800 Forrest Ave., Ground Floor, Room 21

Gadsden, AL 35901

https://etowahcounty.org/
Fayette 205-932-4566 113 N. Temple Ave.

Fayette, AL 35555

https://renewyourtag.com/fayette/
Franklin 256-356-9805 511 1st St. SE

Red Bay, AL 35582

https://renewyourtag.com/franklin/
Geneva 334-684-5640 200 N. Commerce St.

Geneva, AL 36340

https://www.genevacountyal.gov/probate/
Greene (Eutaw) 205-372-3340 400 Morrow Ave.

Eutaw, AL 35462

https://www.eutawal.gov/
Hale 334-624-8740 1001 Main St.

Greensboro, AL 36744

http://www.halecountyal.com/
Henry 334-585-3257 101 W. Court Square, Suite A

Abbeville, AL 36310

https://henrycountyal.com/
Houston 334-677-4734 462 N. Oates St., Admin Bldg

Dothan, AL 36303

https://houstoncountyprobate.org/
Jackson 256-574-9260 P.O. Box 307

Scottsboro, AL 35768-0307

https://www.jacksoncountyal.gov/
Jefferson 205-325-5171 716 Richard Arrington Jr Blvd N

County Courthouse, Suite A-100

Birmingham, AL 35203

https://www.jccal.org/
Jefferson – City of Clay

(residents of Clay only)

205-680-1223 2441 Old Springville Road

Birmingham, AL 35215

https://clayalabama.org/
Jefferson – City of Irondale

(residents of Irondale only)

205-956-9200 101 20th St. S.

Irondale, AL 35210

https://cityofirondaleal.gov/
Jefferson – City of Trussville

(residents of Trussville only)

205-655-7478 131 Main St.

Trussville, AL 35173

https://trussville.org/
Jefferson – City of Vestavia Hills (residents of Vestavia Hills only) 205-978-0188 1032 Montgomery Highway

Vestavia Hills, AL 35216

https://vhal.org/departments/finance/vehicle-tags/
Lamar 205-695-9119 44690 Highway 17, Courthouse

Vernon, AL 35592

https://renewyourtag.com/lamar/
Lauderdale 256-760-5833 102 S. Court St.

Florence, AL 35631

https://www.altags.com/lauderdale_license/default.aspx
Lawrence 256-974-2427 14451 Market St.

Moulton, AL 35650

https://www.lawrencecountyrevenue.com/#/
Lee 334-737-3655 215 S. 9th St.

Opelika, AL 36801

https://www.leecountyrevenuecommissioner.com/#/
Limestone 256-233-6430 100 S. Clinton St., Suite B

Athens, AL 35611

https://limestonecounty-al.gov/departments/license-commissioner/tags-and-vehicle-registration/
Lowndes 334-548-2271 1 Washington St.

Hayneville, AL 36040

https://renewyourtag.com/lowndes/
Macon 334-724-2611 210 N. Elm St.

Tuskegee, AL 36083

https://www.altags.com/macon_license/
Madison 256-532-3315 1918 N. Memorial Parkway

Huntsville, AL 35801

https://www.madisoncountyal.gov/departments/license-department
Marengo 334-295-2209 101 E. Coats Ave.

Linden, AL 36748

http://marengocountyal.com/
Marion 205-921-2471 132 Military St./Court Square

Hamilton, AL 35570

https://www.marioncountyalabama.org/
Marshall 256-571-7725 425 Gunter Ave., Suite 110

Guntersville, AL 35976

https://www.marshallco.org/
Mobile 251-574-8551 3925 Michael Blvd., Suite F

Mobile, AL 36609

https://www.mobilecountylc.com/
Monroe 251-743-4107 65 N. Alabama Ave.

Monroeville, AL 36460

https://www.monroecountyonline.com/
Montgomery 334-832-1233 101 S. Lawrence St.

Montgomery, AL 36104

https://www.mc-ala.org/
Morgan 256-351-4770 302 Lee St. NE

Decatur, AL 35601

http://www.morgancountylicense.com/
Perry (Marion) 334-683-2219 300 Washington St.

Marion, AL 36756

https://www.marioncountyalabama.org/
Pickens 205-367-2010 50 Courthouse Square, Room 106

Carrollton, AL 35447

https://renewyourtag.com/pickens/
Pike 334-566-1246 120 Church St.

Troy, AL 36081

https://www.pikeprobate.com/
Randolph 256-357-4343 1 Main St., Courthouse

Wedowee, AL 36278

http://www.randolphcountyalabama.gov/
Russell 334-298-1520 1000 Broad St.

Phenix City, AL 36867

https://rcala.com/motor-vehicle-licensing/
Shelby 205-670-6836 104 Depot St.

Columbiana, AL 35051

https://shelbyal.com/
St. Clair 205-594-2120 165 5th Ave.

Ashville, AL 35953

https://www.stclairco.com/
Sumter 205-652-7286 Courthouse Square, 115 Franklin St.

Livingston, AL 35470

http://sumtercountyal.com/
Talladega 256-362-1460 1 Courthouse Square/Highway 21

Talladega, AL 35160

http://talladegacountyal.org/
Tallapoosa – Dadeville 256-825-4266 125 N. Broadnax St., Room 126

Dadeville, AL 36853

http://www.tallaco.com/
Tuscaloosa 205-464-8233 2501 7th St., Suite 100

Tuscaloosa, AL 35401

https://www.tuscco.com/
Walker 205-384-7284 1900 3rd Ave.

Jasper, AL 35502

https://altags.com/walker_license/default.aspx
Washington 251-847-2201 45 Court St.

Chatom, AL 36518

http://washprobate.com/
Wilcox 334-682-4883 100 Broad St.

Camden, AL 36726

N/A
Winston 205-489-5219 25125 Highway 195, Room 1

Double Springs, AL 35553

https://www.winstoncountyprobate.org/

DMV Contact Information

There are a few ways to contact Alabama’s DMV.

  • Mailing address:
    • Alabama Department of Motor Vehicles
      2545 Taylor Road
      Montgomery, AL 36117
  • Phone number: 334-242-9000
  • URL:
    • https://contact.revenue.alabama.gov/jira/servicedesk/customer/portal/6/user/login?destination=portal%2F6

How to Get a Duplicate Car Title

Lost your car title? You can get it without leaving your chair if you want:

  • Request it online. You can request a duplicate car title here: https://title.mvtrip.alabama.gov/Account/Login?ReturnUrl=%2FHome%2FDashboard
  • Use the mail instead if you want. If you prefer mail, print and fill out the form (https://www.montgomeryprobatecourtal.gov/home/showpublisheddocument/234/636913950660870000) and mail it to this address:
    • Alabama Department of Revenue Motor Vehicle Division – Title Section
      P.O. Box 327699
      Montgomery, AL 36132
  • Pay the fee. You must include a $15 fee with the form.
  • Notarize the document, if you’re not the owner. If you’re not the owner and you completed Section 1 of the application, you’ll need to get the document notarized.

How to Contact the Alabama Department of Insurance

Whether you want to dispute a claim decision or get your state’s filings, contact the Alabama Department of Insurance.

  • URL: http://www.aldoi.gov
  • Phone number: 334-269-3550
  • Mailing address:
    • Alabama Department of Insurance
      201 Monroe St., Suite 502
      Montgomery, AL 36104

Car Repairs Cost

Despite relatively low car insurance costs, car repairs in Alabama cost 4 percent more than the national average at $398.01. On average, Alabama drivers pay $156.82 for labor and $241.19 for parts, according to a 2020 report from CarMD.9

Alabama Motor Vehicle and Traffic Fatality Rates

The prevalence of auto theft and traffic fatalities are two factors that affect the cost of insurance in Alabama. But how common are they?

Auto Theft

Auto theft, be it of an entire car or its parts, is a pervasive problem in the U.S., but it’s less of a problem in Alabama. The annual rate of car thefts in Alabama is 222 per 100,000 inhabitants, 11 percent less than the rest of the country, according to FBI data. Rates are higher in cities like Mobile, Montgomery, and Columbus.

Metropolitan statistical area Motor vehicle thefts per 100,000 inhabitants in 2020
Mobile, AL 304
Montgomery, AL 294
Columbus, GA-AL 292
Birmingham-Hoover, AL 281
Anniston-Oxford, AL 266
Tuscaloosa, AL 253
Florence-Muscle Shoals, AL 225
Dothan, AL 216
Decatur, AL 213
Huntsville, AL 210
Gadsden, AL 198
Daphne-Fairhope-Foley, AL 119
Auburn-Opelika, AL10 111

Traffic Fatalities

The state doesn’t fare as well here, with 930 fatalities per 100 million vehicle miles driven. That’s 24 percent higher than the national average.

Recap

Your best bet to get the cheapest car insurance in Alabama is to maintain a good driving record by driving defensively, avoiding distracted driving, and following the state’s traffic laws. We hope we’ve provided the information you were looking for, but if not, keep reading to see our FAQs.

Frequently Asked Questions

Learn even more about car insurance in Alabama.

These are the minimum car insurance limits that are required in Alabama:

  • Property damage liability: $25,000
  • Bodily injury liability per person: $25,000
  • Bodily injury liability per accident: $50,000

Car insurance is not expensive in Alabama. Its average annual rate is $932.14, according to the most recent data from the National Association of Insurance Commissioners, which is 15 percent less than the national average.

Car insurance is cheaper in Alabama than in Georgia. Georgia’s average annual cost is $1,212.04 — 30 percent higher than Alabama’s annual average of $932.14, according to 2019 data from the National Association of Insurance Commissioners.

GEICO is one of the cheapest car insurance companies in Alabama. However, it may not be the cheapest for you, depending on your ZIP code, driving record, age, credit score, and other factors. Some of the other cheapest car insurance companies in Alabama are State Farm, USAA, Travelers, and Progressive. To find the cheapest insurance, compare quotes from multiple providers.

Citations

  1. AUTOMOBILE INSURANCE FAQS. Alabama Department of Insurance. (2022).
    https://www.aldoi.gov/consumers/AutoFAQ.aspx

  2. 2018/2019 Auto Insurance Database Report. NAIC. (2022).
    https://content.naic.org/sites/default/files/publication-aut-pb-auto-insurance-database.pdf

  3. One in Eight Drivers Uninsured. IRC. (2021, Mar 22).
    https://www.insurance-research.org/sites/default/files/downloads/UM%20NR%20032221.pdf

  4. State Ignition Interlock Laws. NCSL. (2022).
    https://www.ncsl.org/research/transportation/state-ignition-interlock-laws.aspx

  5. Buckle Up Alabama! ALEA.
    https://www.alea.gov/sites/default/files/inline-files/driverlicensemanual.pdf

  6. Teen Driving. Alabama Public Health. (2021, May 13).
    https://www.alabamapublichealth.gov/teendriving/graduated-drivers-license.html

  7. What Happens If Your Car Insurance Lapses? The General Insurance. (2021).
    https://www.thegeneral.com/blog/what-happens-if-your-car-insurance-lapses/

  8. Mandatory Liability Insurance Manual. Alabama Department of Revenue.
    https://mli.mvtrip.alabama.gov/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/mlimanual.pdf

  9. State Repair Cost Rankings. CarMD. (2020).
    https://www.carmd.com/wp/vehicle-health-index-introduction/2020-carmd-state-index/

  10. NICB ‘Hot Spots’: Auto Thefts Up Significantly Across the Country. NICB. (2022).
    https://www.nicb.org/news/news-releases/nicb-hot-spots-auto-thefts-significantly-across-country